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    AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina

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    AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina

    Postaj by Gost on pet 30 lis - 18:41

    AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina Evo nešto i o ovoj ptici koja je skoro nestala.

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    Re: AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina

    Postaj by Gost on pet 30 lis - 18:41

    Azori zimovka pyrrhula murina


    by Jaime Ramos, iz Bilten afričkih ptica Club, volumen 7.1, ožujka 2000.


    Uvod

    Azori (ili São Miguel) zimovka Pyrrhula murina (lokalni naziv
    Priôlo) je vrlo različit oblik, što je ikada bio samo poznato da se
    pojavljuju na istočnom kraju otoka São Miguel u arhipelaga Azori
    (Portugal). Godman [4], koji je otkrio vrsta, opisao ga je kao jedno od
    karakterističnih ptica planinska područja na otoku. Sadašnje
    populacije, od C120 parova, je ograničena na najveći fragmenti native
    vegetation (Macaronesian Laurel Forests). Krajem prošlog stoljeća je
    imala širi raspon i gledalo kao štetnik u voćnjacima naranče, lako se
    uzima za muzejske zbirke [1]. Native vegetation je jasan za pašu i /
    ili šumskim s egzotičnim Japanski Red Cedar Cryptomeria japonica,
    preostali fragmenti su provalili agresivnom egzotične biljke:
    Pittosporum undulatum, Hedychium gardneranum i Clethra arborea, Azori
    zimovka se sada smatra ugroženim od strane IUCN [5 ] te je uključena u
    portugalskom Red Data Book [3]. To je također uključena u Dodatku I.
    Europske unije Wild Birds Directive. U 1995, lokalni šumarstva uslugu
    pokrenuo program (s Europskom unijom financiranja) u pokušaju da
    vratiti i proširiti područje šume lovora i povećanje populacije Azori
    zimovka [11].

    Perje

    Azori zimovka izrazito razlikuje od svojih kolega kopna, spola
    gotovo su identične u obojenost, iako se mužjaci ponekad imaju blagi
    crvenkasto-šumska prelijevanje na otvor i flanks [8]. Tradicionalna
    metoda starenja zimovka Pyrrhula pyrrhula - boja razlike u većoj
    coverts [7] - teško je primijeniti u Azores zimovka jer odrasli imaju
    buffish oštrice coverts previše, za razliku od greyer tonova u kopno
    zimovka. Muška Azora Bullfinches su značajno veći od ženki [14].

    Stanovništvo i staništa

    Dva glavna područja native vegetation su prisutne unutar raspona
    Azori zimovka: najveći, usredotočena na Pico da Vara vrhu, gdje se
    ptice imaju prebivalište, a ne Cavalo Salto, u zapadnom dijelu raspona,
    gdje je promatrao u rujan-prosinca [12]. Populacija je procijenjena na
    30-40 ptica u kasnim 1970-ih [6], 100 pari in 1989 [2] i 60-200 parova
    1991-1996 [12] (pers. obs.). Native vegetacija je uvijek preferira, ali
    postoje sezonske varijacije u odabiru staništa: u ljetnim mjesecima,
    ptice koriste golom tlu, kratke vegetacije i rubovima šuma, uključujući
    i egzote, 200 m od nativne šume. U od siječnja do travnja je manje
    katoličko i praktički ograničena na native vegetation [12]. Promjene u
    staništu može objasniti sezonske varijacije u hrani resursa između
    staništa: ptica pomaknuti od područja do područja nakon fruiting hrane
    biljkama. Dakle, vrsta je više mobilnih u ljeto, prijelaz područja
    zrele šume do područja s travast biljaka. Boja melodiju pokazao je da
    više ne pokreti (do 3 km vožnje potoci) dogoditi u svibnju, s pticama
    iz padajuće C700 m do 300 m do feed na travast sjemena [L2].
    Azori zimovka

    (A. J. Ramos)


    Uzgoj i prehrana

    Vrsta ponašanja u svibnju i početkom lipnja - Bill miluje i
    grančica display - pokazuje pred-uzgoj aktivnosti, žene s leglo zakrpe
    pojaviti sredinom lipnja - krajem kolovoza, što upućuje na kasnije i
    kraći uzgojne sezone nego kopna zimovka [L4 ]. Odrasli linjati se od
    rujna nadalje. Sam našao dva gnijezda u 1992. Prvi je bio smješten u
    niskom nasada (<5 m visine) C. japonica, a druga unutar područja C.
    arborea i nativne šume, ali oba su bila postavljena na stablu C.
    japonica na c3 m iznad tla. Gnijezda su bili slični, koji se sastoji od
    vanjskog sloja grančicu C. i Erica arborea azorica i unutarnji sloj
    rootlets, trava i mahovina (Slika 2). Progresivna pojava mlade ljude na
    terenu pokazuje dva mlada obično su prikupljena. Azori zimovka je
    granivorous-biljožderski ptica, konzumiraju hranu iz barem 37
    različitih biljnih vrsta, od čega je 13 se zna da je važno. U ljeto,
    ptice se travast sjemena (Polygonum capitatum, Prunella vulgaris,
    Leontodon filii), u jesen sjemenkama mesnatih plodova (Rubus sp.,
    Vaccinium cylindraceum, Leicesteria Formosa), u zimskom stablo sjemena
    (Clethra arborea) i Fern sporangia (Woodwardia radicans , Culcita
    macrocarpa), te u proljeće cvjetne vrhove (Ilex perado), paprat
    sporangia (Osmunda regalis), paprat fronds (Osmunda regaIis, Pteridium
    aquilinum) i mahovina savjeti [10]. Fern fronds i mahovina savjete su
    samo uzeti kada druge hrane su rijetki [9]. Native biljke čine većinu
    prehrane u kolovozu, rujnu i travnju. U ovom mjesecu vrsta pojavljuje
    se snažno ovise o cvjetnih pupova I. perado (s malo ili bez alternative
    na raspolaganju hrane). Sjeme C. arborea se zanemaruju (vjerojatno zato
    što su previše suhi i nesvarljiv) jednom cvijet pupoljci doseći duljinu
    c2.8-3.0 mm [13]. Sjeme i druge egzotične vrste su vrlo rijetko
    konzumira, naročito C. japonica, jer vrsta ne može izvući iz svoje
    sjeme membrana. Stoga, Azori zimovka svibanj lice nestašice hrane u
    kasnu zimu, jer I. perado je prisutan u relativno niske gustoće i
    najviše cvjetnih pupova već bio konzumiran [10].

    Conservation

    Lovor šuma oko Pico da Vara samita (Azores uporište zimovka) je
    odredila Natural Forest Reserve po Regionalni Vlada Azores. Ona je
    također određena područja od posebne zaštite Azorean Vlada pod EU-a
    Wild Direktiva o pticama. Kontrola invazivnih egzote i sadnja
    autohtonih vrsta, odrastao u rasadnicima, počeo Početkom 1995 nakon
    odobrenja potpora EU-LIFE. Glavni cilj ovog projekta je ponovno
    uspostaviti i poboljšati lovor šumu, kako bi se osiguralo održavanje i
    održiv stanovnika Azores zimovka u dugoročno.

    Savjeti za posjetitelje

    Azori zimovka je najlakše vidjeti u svibanj-rujan, uz planinska
    cesta od Nordeste do Povoação, u blizini Miradouro da Serra da
    Tronqueira; ptice hrane na tom putu i susjedna otvora na sjemenke
    travast biljaka, posebno P. capitatum (koji čini mali tepih od cvijeća
    ružičasta). U rujnu studenog moguće je, iako teže, vidjeti maloljetnici
    u blizini Salto ne Cavalo (gore Furnas), a izvan Miradouro da Ponta da
    Madrugada, na obali od ceste do Nordeste Povoação.

    Zahvale

    Moj rad na Azores zimovka je financiran od strane Kraljevskog
    društva za zaštitu ptica (RSPB), uz nadzor od prof Chris Perrins i dr.
    Colin Bibby. Šumarstvo Služba Azori u Nordeste pod uvjetom logističku
    potporu i smještaja tijekom studija. Sveučilište u Azori i županije
    Nordeste također su podržali rad. LIFE projekt, koji je započeo 1995.
    se djelomično financira Europska unija.

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    Re: AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina

    Postaj by Gost on pet 30 lis - 18:43

    -Originalni textAzores Bullfinch pyrrhula
    murina

    by Jaime A Ramos, from Bulletin of the African Bird Club, volume 7.1,
    March 2000.
    Introduction
    Azores (or São Miguel) Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina (local
    name of Priôlo) is a very distinct form, which has only ever been known
    to occur at the east end of the island of São Miguel in the Azores archipelago
    (Portugal). Godman[4], who discovered the species, described it as one
    of the characteristic birds of mountainous areas on the island. The present
    population, of c120 pairs, is confined to the largest fragments of native
    vegetation (Macaronesian Laurel Forests). At the end of the last century
    it had a wider range and was regarded as a pest in orange orchards, being
    easily taken for museum collections[1]. Native vegetation has been cleared
    for pasture and/or forested with the exotic Japanese Red Cedar Cryptomeria
    japonica
    , The remaining fragments have been invaded by aggressive
    exotic plants: Pittosporum undulatum, Hedychium
    gardneranum
    and Clethra arborea, Azores Bullfinch
    is now considered Endangered by IUCN[5] and is included within the Portuguese
    Red Data Book[3]. It is also included in Annex I of the European Union's
    Wild Birds Directive. In 1995, the local forestry service initiated a
    programme (with European Union funding) in an attempt to restore and expand
    the area of laurel forest and increase the population of Azores Bullfinch[11].
    Plumage
    Azores Bullfinch differs markedly from its mainland counterpart, The sexes
    are virtually identical in coloration, although males sometimes possess
    a slight reddish-tawny suffusion on the vent and flanks[8]. The traditional
    method of ageing Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula - colour
    differences in the greater coverts[7] - is difficult to apply in Azores
    Bullfinch because adults have buffish-edged coverts too, unlike the greyer
    tones in mainland Bullfinch. Male Azores Bullfinches are significantly
    larger than females[14].
    Population and habitat
    Two main areas of native vegetation are present within the range of the
    Azores Bullfinch: the largest, centred on the Pico da Vara summit, where
    birds are resident, and Salto do Cavalo, in the west of the range, where
    it has been observed in September - December[12]. The population was estimated
    at 30-40 birds in the late 1970s[6], 100 pairs in 1989[2] and 60-200 pairs
    in 1991-1996[12] (pers. obs.). Native vegetation is always preferred but
    there are seasonal variations in habitat selection: in summer, birds utilise
    bare ground, short vegetation and forest edges, including exotics, within
    200 m of native forest. In January -April it is less catholic and virtually
    confined to native vegetation [12]. Changes in habitat can be explained
    by seasonal variation in food resources between habitats: birds move from
    area to area following the fruiting of food plants. Therefore, the species
    is more mobile in summer, crossing areas of mature forest to reach areas
    with herbaceous plants. Colour ringing has demonstrated that longer movements
    (up to 3 km along streams) occur in May, with birds descending from c700
    m to 300 m to feed on herbaceous seeds[l2].
    Azores Bullfinch
    (J. A. Ramos)

    Breeding and feeding
    The species' behaviour in May and early June - bill caressing and twig
    display - indicates pre-breeding activity, Females with brood patches
    occur in mid-June - late August, suggesting a later and shorter breeding
    season than that of the mainland Bullfinch[l4]. Adults moult from September
    onward. I found two nests in 1992. The first was located in a low plantation
    (<5 m height) of C. japonica and the second within an area of C.
    arborea
    and native forest, but both were placed on a C.
    japonica
    tree at c3 m above ground. Nests were alike, consisting
    of an outer layer of twigs of C. arborea and Erica
    azorica
    and an inner layer of rootlets, grass and moss (Fig 2).
    The progressive appearance of juveniles in the field suggests two young
    are usually raised. Azores Bullfinch is a granivorous-herbivorous bird,
    consuming food from at least 37 different plant species, of which 13 are
    known to he important. In summer, birds take herbaceous seeds (Polygonum
    capitatum, Prunella vulgaris, Leontodon filii
    ), in autumn seeds
    of fleshy fruits (Rubus sp., Vaccinium cylindraceum, Leicesteria
    formosa
    ), in winter tree seeds (Clethra arborea)
    and fern sporangia (Woodwardia radicans, Culcita macrocarpa),
    and in spring flower buds (Ilex perado), fern sporangia
    (Osmunda regalis), fern fronds (Osmunda regaIis,
    Pteridium aquilinum
    ) and moss tips[10]. Fern fronds and moss
    tips are only taken when other foods are scarce[9]. Native plants comprise
    the majority of the diet in August-September and April. In this month
    the species appears heavily dependent on flower buds of I. perado
    (with few or no alternative foods available). Seeds of C. arborea
    are ignored (presumably because they are too dry and indigestible) once
    flower buds reach a length of c2.8-3.0 mm[13]. Seeds of other exotic species
    are very rarely consumed, especially C. japonica, because
    the species cannot extract the seed from its cone. Therefore, Azores Bullfinch
    may face food shortages in late winter, because I. perado
    is present at relatively low densities and most flower buds have already
    been consumed[10].
    Conservation
    The laurel forest around the Pico da Vara summit (the stronghold of Azores
    Bullfinch) has been designated a Natural Forest Reserve by the Regional
    Government of the Azores. It was also designated a Special Protection
    Area by the Azorean Government under the EU Wild Birds Directive. The
    control of invasive exotics and planting of native species, raised in
    nurseries, began in early 1995 following the approval of a EU LIFE grant.
    The main aim of this project is to re-establish and improve the laurel
    forest, to ensure and maintain a viable population of Azores Bullfinch
    in the long term.
    Hints for visitors
    Azores Bullfinch is easiest to see in May-September, along the mountain
    road from Nordeste to Povoação, near Miradouro da Serra da Tronqueira;
    birds feed along this road and adjacent openings on seeds of herbaceous
    plants, especially P. capitatum (which forms a small
    carpet of pink flowers). In September- November it is possible, although
    more difficult, to see juveniles near Salto do Cavalo (above Furnas),
    and beyond Miradouro da Ponta da Madrugada, on the coast road from Nordeste
    to Povoação.
    Acknowledgements
    My work on Azores Bullfinch was financed by the Royal Society for the
    Protection of Birds (RSPB), with supervision from Prof. Chris Perrins
    and Dr Colin Bibby. The Forestry Service of the Azores in Nordeste provided
    logistic support and accommodation throughout the study. The University
    of the Azores and the county of Nordeste also supported the work. The
    LIFE project, which commenced 1995. is partially funded by the European
    Union.

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    Re: AZORSKA ZIMOVKA pyrrhula murina

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